The Romans had left Britain to defend their own homeland against invaders, leaving
the people of what we now call the British Isles to defend themselves (from one another!) and do as best they could against the peoples of mainland Europe.
It was in these dark days that Winteringham gained its current name, generally agreed to be “the place of Wintra’s people”.
Another possibility put forward is that Winteringham and Winterton were named after Wintra the first King of Lindsey (in about 460 AD), though others have
suggested less likely options including ‘the place of the Winter Ings’ because the climatic effect of the North Sea and Humber, together with the land at Winteringham
meant that cattle could be kept here all year round.
The Vikings, those skilled ocean travellers, found the lands a happy hunting ground before finally settling
in these parts. It is said of Winteringham that in the eleventh century the streets flowed with blood, and it is
rumoured that on one night alone - 12th November 1012 - more than half the villagers were killed in one raid.
On September 18th 1066 a fleet of 300 boats belonging to Harald Hardrada, King of Norway sailed past
Winteringham, travelling upstream. With the help of Tostig (brother of Harold II, King of England) and their
Scottish allies the army carried on past Winteringham on their way to battle, and defeat against Harold II’s army at Stamford Bridge 7 days later.
By the time of the Domesday Book the village was quite prosperous. Besides the church and its living,
the Book recorded three mills, a fishery and a ferry at the village. The Domesday Book used the spelling ‘Wintringeham’ for the village.
The Marmions had originated from the village of Fontenay-le-Marmion, in Normandy, which is just a few
miles south of the modern city of Caen, and that city’s new ‘peripherique’ (ring road). They held the unique
position of ‘Champion’ to the Dukes of Normandy, and it is thought, though cannot be authenticated, that
Robert Marmion accompanied William (later ‘the Conqueror’) across the Channel and took part in the battle of Hastings.
After the battle, Robert was awarded lands in Winteringham as well as at Scrivelsby and Tamworth Castle.
Many suggest that his son Roger Marmion was born at Winteringham, whilst at least one suggests
Scrivelsby. Roger’s date of birth is given as “approximately 1065” - but if he had been born in
Winteringham, this would have to be 1066 or later. He died in 1130 at Scrivelsby, and is thought to be the
25th-great-grandfather of Prince Charles, and the 18th-great-grandfather of George Washington, as well as being an ancestor of Sir Winston Churchill.
The Hall where the Marmions lived is thought to have been south of the rectory in the aptly named “Hall
Closes”, with a rear entrance leading directly to the equally aptly named “Earlsgate.”
By the Middle Ages Winteringham had grown into a ‘town’ with its own Mayor (chosen from High and Low
Burgage - thus explaining the names) and Corporation. It also had a market and a fair granted at this time.
The Lay Subsidy, which gives an idea of the size and relative wealth of villages and towns, was £72.69 in
1334. On 26th September 1317 King Edward II granted a market charter to John Marmyon [sic] to be
held on Wednesdays at the manor. At the same time a charter to John Marmyon allowed a fair to be held
on the feast of Mary Magdalen (July 28th) with the fair being held on the vigil (the eve of the feast day), the feast day itself, and the morrow (the day after the feast day).
"The King to the Archbishop &c. greeting. Know ye that we have granted and by this our Charter have
confirmed to our beloved and faithful John Marmion that he and his heirs for ever may have every week on Wednesday at their Manor of Wyntryngham in the County of Lincoln and a Fair there every
year to last for three days, on the Vigil of the day, on the day, and on the morrow of Saint Mary Magdalene. Wherefore we will and firmly command for us and our heirs that the aforesaid John
Marmion and his heirs may have for ever, the said Market and Fair aforesaid with all liberties and free
customers to such Market and Fair belonging. Witnessed by J Winton Chancellor, Sept. 26th, 1317. Thomas de Brotherton County of Norfolk and Marechal of England. Hugh de Despensor, Senr."
On 30 January 1333, King Edward III granted charters to John Marmyon for a market to be held on
Saturdays, and for a fair to be held on the feast of the Transfiguration of Thomas the Martyr (July 7th), again on the vigil, feast and morrow of that day.
According to the directories (see Directories page by clicking here), a pleasure fair was being held at
Winteringham on July 14th in Victorian times under a charter granted in the reign of King John, while the market had not been held ‘for several centuries.’
However, according to James Dugdale in his “The New British Traveller or Modern Panorama of England
and Wales Volume 3” (1819) Winteringham Fair on July 14th was for “Horned cattle and goods”.
Marmion family genealogy on the site: http://www.geneajourney.com/marmion.html