Education did not become compulsory, until after the 1871 Education Act. By that time, Winteringham already had its ‘National School.’ (National referred to the “National Society for the
Education of the Poor in the Principles of the Established Church.”)
But it was far from being the first school in Winteringham. There must have been Dames Schools in existence from time to time. A Dames School could be held in the kitchen of a normal house with just a
handful of pupils in attendance, all supervised by the ‘Dame.’ In such circumstances, their quality could and did vary greatly.
The richer families often educated their children at home, employing a governess, in the nineteenth century, perhaps sending them away to school as they became older.
There was a school house in the village, which was leased to Edward Clarvis, who as well as being schoolmaster, was also parish clerk, shopkeeper, farmer and Mayor! Before him were Henry Kellingley, 1581-1585,
and Thomas Hill (who died in 1644).
There were private schools in Winteringham in the eighteenth, nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Here is the text from an advert placed by Edward England in the Stamford Mercury 17th June 1808
E. England begs leave to acquaint his friends and the public that he receives a limited number of pupils under his care, who are boarded at the rate of fourteen guineas, and
carefully instructed in English Grammar, Penmanship and a regular course of Mathematics, both in theory and practice; together with History, Geography, the use of Globes, the use and construction of maps and charts,
the method of Drawing in Perspective, etc. — The pupils are also occasionally exercised in measuring and parting off land, measuring the Heights and Distances of inaccessible objects —
designed for a sea-faring life are shown how to adjust and to take Observations with Hadley's and Davis's Quadrants, as well as regularly exercised in the various compendiums for determining the Latitudes by
double altitudes of the Sun, and the Longitude by lunar observations etc. etc. Terms of Education from 5s. to 15s. per quarter; entrance 10s.6d. use of library Is. per quarter.
By 1818, Lorenzo Grainger reported to a Select Committee on the Education of the poor that Winteringham had three day schools at which between 44 and 59 children were educated by women, and a master educated about
40. A Sunday School was attended by between 80 and 100 pupils. By 1835, the village had no fewer than 6 day schools, with 54 boys and 50 girls, whose education was paid for by their parents, and there
was a Sunday school supported by subscription which was attended by similar numbers.
Mr G C Clarke’s School, 1820-1830s
There remain the bills and posters of the time advertising these schools, but it is often difficult to establish which buildings were used. The photo shown here was of a house last lived in by Dick
Newbourne and his wife on West End, ‘Humber View,’ demolished approximately 1962 very shortly after this photograph was taken. The white building on the side of the house was clearly a
classroom, and known as such in the 1950s, though used by Dick as a large storeshed at the time. Could this have been the Academy run by a Mr G C Clarke in the 1820s and 30s for young
gentlemen? It would after all fulfil his claim that the rooms were ‘commodious’ and the school had a ‘commanding view of the Humber.’ In 1830 the
school’s advertisement stated,
“Education at G C Clarke’s Academy, Winteringham, Brigg, Lincolnshire, where young gentlemen are genteelly boarded and carefully instructed in Classical, Mathematical and Commercial
Learning, on the Interrogative System.
G C Clarke, sincerely grateful for all favours, informs parents and guardians that his Academy will re-open on 28th July for Board and Instruction in the following branches of Education: viz.
The Latin and Greek Languages, Geography (ancient and modern), History, English, Grammar, Algebra, Arithmetic, Book Keeping, Land Surveying, Gauging, Reading, Writing, etc. etc.
For young gentlemen under 10 years of age, 20 guineas per annum.
Between 10 and 14 years of age, 22 guineas per annum.
Between 14 and 16 years of age, 24 guineas per annum.
Entrance 1 guinea, Washing and Mending 2 guineas.
French (by a Native of France) Entrance 10s 6d. Tuition 4 guineas.
No extra charges, except for books and the use of the Globes”
Above: Miss Barratt’s vBoarding School for Young Ladies, courtesy of Sandra Clayton
Schoolmasters and Teachers
The earliest “Schoolmaster” mentioned in the Parish Registers is one Thomas Hill, who was buried on 19th February 1644.
There are a number of men who are described in the Parish Registers as “Schoolmaster” on the baptism of their children. These were:
Edward England, 1810;
John Walker, 1830, and 1831;
Robert Godfrey, 1831, whose son was named Robert England Godfrey, suggesting a possible link to Edward England?
, was married in 1861, and was a school mistress at the time.
The National School 1845
In 1842 John Walker
is listed in White’s Directory as “Schoolmaster” without elaborating on which type of school he was the master of. However, the directory states that “there is a National School here.” That indicates that a National School (not necessarily a building, just a functional school) was operating in the village before the National School building was erected! NB: John Walker had
been listed as a Schoolmaster since at least 1830.
The National School was opened in 1845, close by the Church.
The Reverend T F R Read initiated the school, and in November 1845 he wrote the following letter to parents:
“Winteringham National School
The above school will be open for the reception of boys tomorrow morning, November 17th at 9 o’clock. No girls can be accepted until the new schools are fit for use.
All the children who attend the day school will be expected to attend on Sunday.
No children will be allowed to remain in school unless they have been baptized and christened, or are anxious to be so the first opportunity.
It is particularly requested that the children will be sent to school punctually at 9 o’clock.
Until the new schools are opened the charges for instruction will be as follows; namely for the children of the poor 2d a week,
and for those of farmers and tradespeople 3d. When more than two attend from one poor family 1d a week will be charged for the third.
All payments will be payed in advance every Monday morning. Each child will have to pay threepence for coals for the intervening between now and Christmas.
November 16th 1845
T F R Read, Rector”
See the original
Headteachers of the National School
From the census, parish registers and directories, the following list of masters may be gleaned, with the ‘average attenadance’ given if available:
1847 Francis Thurlow
1849 Francis Thurlow
1851 Thomas Large
The White’s Directory gives the name “Edmund Burkill” which we believe is an error and should read “Edmund Bickell”.
1861 Edmund Bickell;
having taught at Haworth in Yorks, Mr Bickell apparently knew one of the Bronte sisters; he took over as Winteringham Postmaster after marrying Hercules Barnett’s daughter, Elizabeth.
Edmund Bickell - his early life by Cynthia at Bristolinformation.co.uk
Interestingly he was christened at St James' Church which is in Bristol itself although the record states that the parents were of the parish of Bedminster
His parents were
George and Mary Bickell. George was a coach maker. Edmund was born 1st February 1832 but not baptised until 14th July 1833 when his younger brother John was baptised at the same
Father George died probably early in 1849 because in 1851 census his mother was a widowed housekeeper aged 50.
The family were living in King Street Bedminster.
Edmund's elder sister, Matilda, was a tailoress working at home, his younger brother John was a porter. The children were all born in Bedminster, Mary herself was from
Edmund was a pupil teacher, educated at Bedminster National School. An 1847 newspaper report stated that he and three others had received their education solely at the
school. They were awarded £10 for the first year,
£12.10s for the second and £15 the third, £17.10s for the fourth and £20 for the fifth. The report concluded
'This is an advantage open to all the children of the poor, if they avail themselves'.
From Sandra Clayton:
The note below was attached to the photograph, which it is presumed is Edmund Bickell:
1868 Edwin A Cates
, 1871 was the National Schoolmaster, living as a lodger with George Cross West in West End, probably in the area of the house now called Oakdene. On 27th August 1873, at the
age of 42, he married Alice King, who had been a servant at the Rectory in 1871, and was 10 years younger than himself.
1880 David Soanes: see here, below for the press report on presentations made to Mr Soanes
and his sister, Mrs Cornish, who was school mistress; and here for a presentation from Winteringham Cricket Club.
1890 Thomas Whitehead. His wife Sarah was also a teacher at the school. 1885 average attendance: 90; 1889 average attendance: 80
1891 Mr James Potter
of Great Missenden, took over from Thomas Whitehead in the first week of November 1891. Mrs Potter had had charge of the infants class at Great Missenden - though
whether that was the case at Winteringham, we are currently unaware.
1895 the misses Marion and Sabina Marr; average attendance: 70
In 1895, Henry Pilling
and his wife had a daughter baptised at Winteringham, and is listed as “Schoolmaster” in the parish registers, and similarly in 1899 Matthew Sowesby.
1901-1909 Henry Thorpe
; 1905 average attendance: 81; 1909 average attendance: 81
1913, 1919, 1926 Frederick Talbot Draper; 1913 average attendance 86
The Diocesan Board of Education made several grants to Winteringham
National School. The first was in 1846 when it made a grant of £25 (the Board’s maximum grant). A Government building grant of £80 was given in the same year, followed by a
further grant of £50 in 1855, and a third such grant in 1858 of £38. 1
A piece appeared in the Hull Packet of Friday 22nd October 1858, which probably serves more to confuse rather than clarify! ...
“Winteringham: At a meeting of the Lincoln Diocesan Board of Education held a few days ago, £5
was granted towards the erection of a class-room for 80 children, at Winteringham.”
In 1855 a series of questions were asked of schools in the area. The Rector of Winteringham made the following point in his return: “I should much wish to have a Mistress independent of the Master.
As it is, the Master’s wife has a family, and it is always against her consent that she teaches at all,
and so does it inattentively. I believe I should have a much better school if I had a mistress to
attend the whole day. The only obstacle is the want of funds to meet an additional salary.” 1
The Returns also showed that Winteringham National School received £50-13s-0d (£50.65) in subscriptions and donations, and £29 from ‘school pence’. 1
An Inspection was reported in the Hull Packet of 18th Mar 1859:
On Wednesday 2nd instant, the National school at this place was examined by the Rev.H.B.Barry
, M.A., Her Majesty's inspector. 108 children were present, and after the examination the inspector spoke very highly of the progress which they made in learning during the past year. (Edmund Bickell was the Schoolmaster at the time).
The National School appears to have had quite a reputation for the sewing skills of the girls in the late 1870s and early 1880s ... which is still appreciated by collectors today. A sampler made by
Evalina Evratt at Winteringham National School, and dated by her 14th May 1878, was sold for £143.07 on Ebay in the summer of 2009! She was 11 years old at the time, marrying Charles Altoft
at the age of 24 in 1891, a railway shunter from Leeds - but almost certainly a member of the Winteringham family of Altofts. The sampler measured about 11" square, and was typical of many
sewn at the time - including the alphabet, numbers, the girl's name and age, the name of the school, and pictures of parrots, crowns, dogs, fruit, and sewing patterns.
To emphasise the skill and its importance within the school and village, the following articles appeared in the Hull Packet of the time:
28th April 1882:
NATIONAL SCHOOL. - A novel and somewhat interesting gathering took place in this building in
the afternoon of the 18th inst., when the needlework done by the children attending the school during the previous twelve months was brought together, its excellence judged, and prizes
awarded by ladies who kindly undertook the task. The general character of the work was considered to reflect the considerable credit on the children, and on the schoolmistress too, and
much interest was evinced in the result. A sale of some of the work took place, the proceeds of
which will be for the benefit of the school funds, and it is hoped hereafter that this sale will be better
patronised than it could, perhaps, be expected to be now. In addition to the prizes above-named a good conduct prize was awarded; and if friends of the school would kindly help, as they have
promised, it is likely that the authorities may be able to give more liberally in future years than they were able to do now.
and the following year, the Hull Packet reported more about the needlework skills:
5th April 1883:
NATIONAL SCHOOL - The needlework specimens done by the girls - infants and elder scholars -
of the above school, were examined on Wednesday by Mrs Chapman, of Coleby Hall, and Miss Barnet, of Nottingham, for the purpose of apportioning prizes. The following received prizes:-
Clara Burkill, Emma Warburton, Emma Storme, Annie Mary Bratton, Annie Bell, Rose Hall, Minnie Kendall, Annie Waddingham, and Annie Sergeant. In addition to these the infants' efforts
of skill were rewarded with words of encouragement and sixpence given to each child by Mrs Chapman. The prizes were given by Mrs Knowles, Mrs Chapman, and Miss Barnet. Satisfaction
was expressed at the manner in which the work was done, it being considered an improvement on
last year's work. On Thursday there was a sale of the different articles worked by the children, and
the prizes were distributed to those who had gained them. A very fair sale of the articles offered was effected.
There were “School Treats” from time to time. The following reports from the Hull Packet tells us of two of those:
[Hull Packet of 12th January 1883]
NATIONAL MIXED SCHOOL.- A New Year's treat in the shape of an excellent tea, &c., was
provided on New Year's Day for the whole of the children attending the school, being the result of an appeal made to the principal employers of labour and others in the parish, and how liberally
this was responded to a sight of the tables, literally loaded with a variety of good things, amply testified. As might be expected, ample justice was done to the repast, the joyful countenances of
the children needing no words to express their thankfulness. After tea the evening was spent in games of various kinds, interspersed with singing and busy scrambles for apples, nuts, and
sweets, of which there was a liberal supply. At the conclusion the children were addressed by the Rector, the Rev C. Knowles, their hearty cheers afterwards bearing full testimony - if any were
needed - to the manner in which they had enjoyed themselves. A couple of oranges being given
to each child, the singing of the National Anthem closed a pleasant evening's entertainment. The following were the ladies and gentlemen who so kindly contributed to the entertainment, some in
money, some in kind, and others in both: - Mrs Chapman, Mrs Knowles, Mrs Robert Burkill, Mrs Joshia Robinson, Mrs Pulleine, Mrs Frank Robinson, Mrs Sutton, Mrs Josheph [sic] Burkill, Mrs
Bickell, Miss Scarborough [sic], Mrs Hy. Burkill, sen., Mrs Henry Burkill, jun., Mrs Dickenson, Mrs E Brumby, Miss Fanny Burkill, and Mrs Lord. There will be a slight balance in hand; this is
proposed to be spent in prizes, to be given after the examination by Her Majesty's Inspector of Schools.
[Hull Packet of 7th August 1885]
The annual school treat was held in the Rectory grounds on Thursday last week. The day was all
that could be desired, and the children appeared to thoroughly enjoy themselves. Many of the parishioners sat down to a comfortable tea in the Rectory coach-house.
The School was a National School (see the very first paragraph on this page for the full description
of the term “National” as applied to schools such as Winteringham). However, its use as a day
school from Mondays to Fridays, and its relationship with the village Sunday Schools run by the Church and Chapels, was not always an easy one. These two extracts below from newspapers of
the time give us some indication of this:
[Hull Packet of 4th April 1862]
We are informed that several children have lately been expelled from the parish school, because
they attended other than the church school on a Sunday. If this report be true, we scarcely think it justifiable, inasmuch as the parish school is supported by grants from the Committee of Council
[Hull Packet of 21st July 1882]
THE RECENT SUNDAY SCHOOL TREAT. The Rev C. Knowles, dating from Winteringham
Rectory, writes:- "You admitted into your issue of Saturday last an account of the Winteringham Church Sunday school treat, which evidently emanates from no kindly spirit, and certainly
proceeds from no one in authority in connection with the school. I trust, therefore, that you will allow me space in your next to say that the limited attendance, so good-naturedly refrred to,
proceeded very much more from the wetness of the weather than the cause assigned by your own reporter."
The 1906 Return of Public Elementary Schools, prepared at the request of the House of Commons, stated that Winteringham National School was a school for 142 children. In 1902 the roll was 84,
and in 1909 81.
The number attending in 1926 was 110.
Miss Bickell’s School .... and Esperanto! - 1900s.
Miss Bickell advertised her “school” (the adverts didn’t mention school - only “receives a few pupils” and the date when
term started) where she taught English, French, Esperanto musics “etc.”
Change of School Mistress
In October 1906, Miss Ellis, late Mistress of Riby National School, was reported to have been appointed as assistant certificated teacher, to replace Miss Brunt, who had resigned.
A meeting at the Oddfellows Hall in Winterton, passed a motion against the House of Commons Bill that had recently been sent to the House of Lords, which would ban Religious Education from
School Mistress required for Infants
An advert appeared for a female teacher for the infants, in May 1908. The applicant was expected to be experienced, and on top of her £35 per year annual salary, would received increments
“according to scale” later.
Later in the same month, the current infants teacher - Miss Sellars, who had been at the school for eight years was presented with a red Morocco writing case that had been paid for entirely by the
The “New” School
The site of the current Winteringham School cost £200, and the building a further £5,775. When built it consisted of 3 or 4 classrooms (one could be divided using a screen), 2
cloakroom/washrooms, 1 ground floor storeroom, a first floor staffroom, storeroom and toilet. Outside were two wooden cycle sheds, three sets of toilets, a store shed and a coalshed for the
fires which heated the classroom directly (and pipes which went round the classroom walls).
The design of the school was a standard one for Lindsey County Council at that time, and similar examples can be found throughout northern Lincolnshire. Each classroom had a set of glass doors
which could open out onto the veranda - and when they did so effectively the entire ‘wall’ was open
to the air. When these schools were built, it was apparently a regulation that the doors should be
open like this for a part of every school day. It is only necessary to add that the designer of these schools had been an Arctic explorer earlier in his career!
The classroom windows above the verandah roof were opened using a geared handle. Inside the classrooms were reddish-orange glazed brick to about 4 feet, and plastered above that. The
blackboards ran most of the inside wall on one side, and in the 1950s, for Miss Brown to write your name on the board for a misdemeanour was the height of embarrassment, and usually ensured
compliance for the remainder of the day, if not week, or month!
A cupboard in the corner always seemed to have an orange box, the size of a small washing-powder box, bearing the name “Tapwata”. This was paper glue, not unlike early Polycell.
At the same time as building the new school, a house was bought for the Headteacher at a cost of £380.
When the day arrived for the National School to close and the new school to open, the children were walked three-abreast from the National School to the new school carrying their text books tied up
Mr Draper, who had been Head at the National School, was the first Headteacher, and he was succeeded by Miss Wilson, Miss Brown and Mr Sparks over the next forty years.
Until December 1939, the village school (as the National School before it) catered for children from
their first day at school, until they had reached the school leaving age. However, from January 1940, those children aged over 11 attended the secondary school at Winterton.
Throughout the 1950s the teaching staff was Miss Brown, Miss Malone and Miss Coggan. A fairly regular supply teacher was Miss Bee. The School secretary was Mrs Lee, the cook Kath Burkill,
and the dinner ladies included Miss Wilson. The school field was cut by three gang mowers towed by Land Rover, it having brought the gang mowers to the site on a trailer each time.
There was a flagpole centred on the line where the playground met the field, but this was broken, and the stump remained for a considerable time. Boys entered the playground via the gate at the
Market Hill end, whilst girls entered via the gate at the Hewde Lane end.
This photograph of Winteringham National School, its pupils and All Saints Church is reproduced with the kind permission of North
Lincs Council’s Image Archive. The Archive includes many more photographs of Winteringham. Please click the photograph to go to the Archive
Winteringham Primary School in 1955-6, photograph © Val Peill
Summer dinner-time activity as the pupils take to the school field, with one of the trees which never seemed to grow any bigger at the right!
This view of the school shows how the school looked as built in 1927, complete with verandah. The classrooms from left to right were: Miss Malone’s lower juniors (first
three windows on the left), Miss Brown Upper Juniors (next three windows), and Miss Coggan’s infants room on the right (six windows) which doubled up as the school hall.
The raised windows in the middle of the school were the staffroom (which also doubled as the medical room), a small window above the stairs, and the storeroom on the right.
Beneath those rooms were the girls and boys cloakrooms, and the cupboard where the ink was kept for the inkwells.
(from the Hull Packet 3rd September 1880)
PRESENTATION TO THE SCHOOLMASTER AND MISTRESS: - On Saturday, August 21st, there was an interesting gathering in the Cricket Field, the
occasion being that of presenting to Mr David Soanes, the schoolmaster, and his sister, and Mrs. Cornish, the schoolmistress, some tokens of regard and esteem from the parents of
the children whom they had instructed. Upwards of 300 persons assembled to witness the presentation. A very handsome timepiece was selected by the committee, and was
presented by Mrs. Matthew Beacock to Mr. David Soanes, on his leaving Winteringham, as a small token of the high esteem in which he was held during his residence and the
prosecution of his scholastic duties there, and expressive of the greatest regret at the severance of that engagement between the people of Winteringham and Mr Soanes, and wishing
him every success in future life. Mrs F. Bell presented to Mrs Cornish a richly-cut glass biscuit canister, silver-mounted, as a token of the regard in which she was held by
the inhabitants of Winteringham. The school children also presented to Mrs Cornish a beautiful silver brooch, as a small token of regard. Ay the close of the
presentations Mr. Soanes acknowledged the gifts on behalf of his sister, Mrs Cornish, and himself, in feeling terms. Messrs. M. Beacock and F. Bell and other parishioners
addressed the meeting, which was concluded by the singing of the National Anthem.
(from the Hull Packet 21st August 1880)
On Monday [17th August 1880] Mr. David Soanes, the National Schoolmaster, was presented with a valuable cricket-bat
by the members of the cricket club. As an exponent of the game of cricket, no less than as a schoolmaster, Mr. Soanes has won the golden opinions of all in this parish, and
his approaching removal is viewed by all with regret.